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[Q&A] Jeju Civilian-Military Complex Port

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  • What kind of installation is being/will be constructed? Is it a port or a military naval base? How is a tourism port compatible with a military installation?
    • ○ The project of Jeju Civilian-Military complex port (hereafter, the port) is building a pier and support facilities to accommodate two 150,000-ton cruise ships and 20 naval strike group vessels. This port is to be jointly used by military and civilians.
    • ○ Hawaii (U.S.), Naples (Italy), Sydney (Australia), Toulon (France) are good examples of serving dual roles of naval base and tourism port.
     
    Why is the port necessary?
    • ○ The project, which had been originally planned for a naval base construction, was changed to build a Jeju Civilian-Military complex port at the Ministerial Council for National Policy Coordination hosted by the Prime Minister’s Office in September 2008 after accepting opinions of Jeju Province and local residents in 2007.
    • ○ The port would help to defend national sovereignty and security of Korea and properly cope with contingencies in the southern sea area. Furthermore, as new tourism resources it would contribute to regional economic development and create jobs. This was shown in a preliminary feasibility study and a study on joint use of military and cruise ships in 2008.
     
    What is the schedule for the construction of the port? It was indicated that the decision to go ahead with the construction was taken recently (February 2012). Has the port construction already begun?
    • ○ After it was decided to build the port in the current location in May 2007, a strategic environmental assessment and the Environmental Impact Assessment were made by relevant authorities. Then, the port construction was launched in January 2010.
    • ○ However, the construction had been suspended due to a controversy raised by Jeju Province, whether the port is capable of harboring a 150,000 ton cruise ship. In February 2012, the Ministerial Council for National Policy Coordination (Chairman: Prime Minister) decided to go ahead with the construction of the port. The controversy was over and then the construction was resumed according to the schedule.
    • ○ Since the construction began in January 2010, 165.3 billion KRW (17% of the budget) has been spent so far. Ground construction will be started in the second quarter of this year for the goal of completing the port in 2015.


    ◆The Overview and Implementation Progress of Jeju Civilian-Military complex port

    Overview


    • ○ Building a Jeju Civilian-Military complex port to accommodate two 150,000-tonne cruise ships and 20 military vessels by investing 977.6 billion KRW during 2006 to 2015
    • The Overview and Implementation Progress of Jeju Civilian-Military complex port

    Progress of implementation

    • ○ Dec. 1993: In the Joint Chiefs of Staff meeting of Korean Military, it was decided that a naval base would be built in Jeju Island.
    • ○ Nov. 2005 - Apr. 2007: Hwasun, Wimi and Gangjeong wanted to have a naval base in Jeju province.
    • ○ Dec. 2006 - May 2007: Jeju discussed and decided how to select the site for the base among candidate villages.
      * 1,500 residents of Jeju province and 1,000 residents of each candidate site were surveyed during May.
    • ○ May 12th 2007: Gallup Korea conducted a survey of public opinion poll
      * Jeju Island residents: Yes 54.3%, No 38.2%
      * Gangjeong Villagers: Yes 56.0%, No 34.4%
    • ○ May 14th 2007: Gangjeong Village was selected as a site for naval base and the decision was submitted to the Ministry of National Defense.
    • ○ June 9th, 2007: The Ministry gave approval to build a naval base at Gangjeong Village
    • ○ Jan. 2010: Harbor construction started.
    • ○ June - Sep. 2011: The construction was stopped when people who were against the construction occupied the site illegally.
    • ○ Sep. 2011 - Feb. 2012: Construction activities had been halted as opponents constantly interrupted the construction
    • ○ Mar. 2012: Construction activities were resumed (e.g. blasting the rocky shore).
     
    What is the area (in hectares) to be impacted, in land and at sea, during construction, and during operation?
    • ○ The total area is 49㏊(490,000㎡), comprising land areas of 29ha(290,000㎡) and reclaimed lands of 20ha(200,000㎡).
     
    How was the location selected?
    • ○ The port location was decided according to a feasibility study by the Ministry of National Defense and local government's opinion.
    • ○ Gangjeong Village Assembly requested that the village be a candidate for the port in April 2007 after collecting residents’ opinions.
      * Gangjeong Village Advisory Meeting (12 Apr. 2007)
      * Meetings of Gangjeong Village groups of citizens (16 Apr. 2007)
      * Gangjeong Village Steering Committee Meeting (20 Apr. 2007)
      * Fishers’ Assembly Board Meeting (22 Apr. 2007)
      * Gangjeong Village Fishers’ Assembly Delegate Meeting (23 Apr. 2007)
      * Fishers’ Assembly Congress (25 Apr. 2007)
      * Temporary Village Meeting (26 Apr. 2007)
    • ○ Jeju chose Gangjeong Village as the final candidate among three candidates in consultation with Jeju Provincial Council, and referring to public opinion poll. The poll result was provided to the Korean Ministry of National Defense on 22 May 2007.
      * Public opinion poll (conducted by Jeju Province & Gallup Korea on 12 May 2007)
        · Jeju citizens (1,500): Support 54.3%, opposition 38.2%
        · Gangjeong residents (1,000): Support 56%, opposition 34.4%
    • ○ The Ministry of National Defense accepted Jeju Provincial Government's request based on a feasibility study, and finally Gangjeong Village was confirmed to be the project area on 8 June 2007.
     
    Is the construction site in an Absolute Conservation Area? If it is, why was it decided to build the port there and not elsewhere?
    • ○ Jeju Province has designated most of seashores as Absolute Conservation Area to prevent unplanned development. Some portions of the planned project area (0.105㎢) had been Absolute Conservation Area until 2009, but legal status of absolute conservation was withdrawn in agreements with Jeju Provincial Council, and subsequently Jeju Province Government notified the legal status to the Public in Dec. 2009 referring to the Special Act on the Establishment of Jeju Special Self-governing Province and the Development of Free International City, and the Ordinance on Jeju Conservation Area Management.
    • ○ Among the three candidate places in Jeju, the current location was finally selected, considering military strategy, environmental impacts and whether local residents have agreed.
     
    Does the construction site fall under an IUCN Protected Area Category? If so, which one is it?
    • ○ The surroundings of the construction site has been designated as Nature Monument of Korea according to the Cultural Properties Protection Law. However, it has not been classified by IUCN Protected Area Category.
      Note: The surroundings of the construction site (92.6㎢) have been designated as Nature Monument No.442 to protect the Jeju Island shore's soft coral colony since 2004.
    • ○ With considering the importance of the Jeju Civilian-Military complex port in respect of national sovereignty and security in the southern sea area, the Korean Government has taken various measures to protect Nature Monument Area, including EIA process.
     
    Does the port impact in any way on the Jeju UNESCO World Heritage Site, including any lava tube cave systems?
    • ○ UNESCO-designated World Natural Heritage (in 2007) are Mt. Halla National Park, Seongsan Ilchulbong, and Geomun Oreum lava tube, which are all located in mid-north of Jeju Island.
    • ○ There would be no direct impact of the port, in that the project area is southern coast of Jeju Island and no World Natural Heritage is located.
      Note: The construction site is at least 1-2.3km away from Beom Islet which is the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (Buffer Zone) and Protected Ecology/Landscape Area according to domestic relevant laws.
    Protected Areas around the Jeju Civilian-Military Complex Port  
    Have all steps required by Korean legislation in selecting the location, planning the development and beginning construction been strictly followed?
    • ○ Relevant laws have been strictly followed from choosing the location to starting construction in the process of location feasibility study, collecting locals' opinions, a strategic environmental assessment, environment impact assessment (joint ecosystem investigation), excavating survey on buried cultural assets, and coming up with endangered species conservation measures and follow-up environment survey.

      *Relevant legislations: Special Act on the Establishment of Jeju Special Self-governing Province and the Development of Free International City, Environmental Impact Assessment Act, Environmental Policy Basic Act, Wildlife Protection Act, and Cultural Properties Protection Law, etc.
     
    How was the Environmental Impact Assessment conducted? By whom?
    • ○ Based on the Environmental Policy Basic Act, a strategic environmental assessment was conducted by the Ministry of National Defense, and reviewed by the Ministry of Environment. The Ministry of Environment requested the Ministry of National Defense to carry out a joint ecosystem investigation, and to prepare mitigation plan against the probable adverse impacts to marine ecosystem such as soft coral reef area (31 Oct. 2008).
    • ○ According to the Special Act on the Establishment of Jeju Special Self-governing Province and the Development of Free International City, the Korean Navy produced the Environmental Impact Assessment report reflecting the outcomes of 4 seasonal surveys and joint ecosystem investigation, and reviewed by Jeju Province.

      - The Environmental Impact Assessment report was finalized by Jeju Province and Jeju Provincial Council, followed by public hearings (21 Dec. 2009).
    Flow Chart of Environmental Impact Assessment in Korea

    ◆Summary of the Environmental Impact Assessments

    1. Strategic Environmental Assessment


    • a. Based on the Environmental Policy Basic Act, the Ministry of National Defense conducted a strategic environmental assessment, and the Ministry of Environment reviewed it.
    • (b. The Ministry of Environment requested the Ministry of National Defense to carry out a joint ecosystem investigation, and to prepare mitigation plan against the probable adverse impacts to marine ecosystem such as soft coral reef area (31 Oct. 2008).

    2. Environment Impact Assessment

    • a. According to the Special Act on the Establishment of Jeju Special Self-governing Province and the Development of Free International City, the Korean Navy produced the Environmental Impact Assessment report reflecting the outcomes of 4 seasonal surveys and joint ecosystem investigation, and reviewed by Jeju Province
    • b. The Environmental Impact Assessment report was finalized by Jeju Province and Jeju Provincial Council, followed by public hearings (21 Dec. 2009).
    • c. According to the results of the Environmental Impact Assessment, it is recommended to minimize environmental degradation and pursue the project in an environmentally friendly way by making all-out efforts to protect marine ecosystem around Beom Islet (1.7km south to the port) and Jeju Island shore's soft coral colony (Nature Monument No.442).

    3. Follow-up of Environment Impact Assessments

    • a. Navy monitored probable environmental impacts quarterly in 2011 based on the Environmental Impact Assessment Monitoring Plan.
    • b. No special difference found in marine flora and fauna and land flora compared to those during Environment Impact Assessments.
    • c. The Ministry of Environment (Youngsan River Regional Office) and Jeju Province conducted the joint follow-up survey on environmental impact (26 Oct 2011).
    • d. According to the result, administrative order imposed to reduce scattering dust, place silt protector, repair and reinstall temporary drainage and grit chamber (7 Nov 2011).

    4. Measures for endangered species in the project area

    • a. 322 of Sesarma intermedium species (estuary crab) (Endangered Species, LevelⅡ designated by Korean Ministry of Environment) had been transplanted to Yakcheonsa, Daepo-dong, Seoqwipo City, from June 2010 to October 2011.
    • b. About 900 Kaloula borealis (Endangered Species, LevelⅡ) were transferred to Jeju Stone Park in Jeju City from June to September 2011. 5,300 Jeju's Neocardina denticulata (critically endangered) were transplanted to Gangjeong Stream, east of the project area (Oct~Dec 2011)
    • c. About 5,300 Jeju's Neocardina denticulata (freshwater shrimp) were transplanted to Gangjeong creek from October to December 2010.
     
    • ○ According to the results of the Environmental Impact Assessment, it is recommended to minimize environmental degradation and pursue the project in an environmentally friendly way by making all-out efforts to protect marine ecosystem around Beom Islet (1.7km south to the port) and Jeju Island shore's soft coral colony (Nature Monument No.442).
    • ○ The results of the Environmental Impact Assessment and the Joint Ecosystem Investigation were made public through meetings (March 26 and April 24, 2009) and public hearings (June 26, 2009). They were submitted to the Ministry of Environment, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Government and Jeju Provincial Council, but are not available on the Internet. In case of military facilities, basically, the Environmental Impact Assessment should not be disclosed because of a matter of security.
     
    • ○ In February 2009, the Joint Ecosystem Investigation was conducted by KYONGHO ENGINEERING INC. (recommended by the Navy) and ECOCEAN INC. (recommended by the project opponents), and was also participated by 6 public servants, 6 experts, and 6 village representatives.
    • ○ The results of Joint Ecosystem Investigation were made public in the meeting (March 26, 2009) and the public hearing (June 24, 2009), were submitted to the Ministry of Environment, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and Jeju Provincial Council, and were reflected in the Environmental Impact Assessment.


    ◆Summary of the Joint Ecosystem Investigation

    • ○ Period: February 9th -25th, 2009
    • ○ Investigators: KYONGHO ENGINEERING INC. (recommended by the Navy) and ECOCEAN INC. (recommended by the project opponents) The investigation was initially planned to be led by the Navy but at the request of the National Assembly (assemblyman Hong Hee Deok) and Jeju residents, the Ministry of Environment led the investigation.
    • ○ Scope: Seashore of Gangjeong Village (3.5km off from Gangjeong Coast), the dispersion of suspended solid
    • ○ Subject: Marine fauna and flora, and geological study on coast nearby Gureombi
    • ○ Station
      a. Soft coral: 3 spots around Saegotbyeol light beacon (Gangjeong Lighthouse, 200m southwest of seawall) and 3 spots around Gichabawi Rocks (1.5㎞ east of seawall)
      b. Marine fauna and flora: 3 to 9 spots according to investigation subject (including spots that have already been investigated)
    • 조사범위 예시(연산호군락지)
    • ○ Results
      a. Whether which companies investigated the ecosystem made no big differences in the results of investigation into soft corals and marine life although there were minor differences as the timing of investigation (season) and other climate and methodological conditions were different from the previous investigation

      b.Soft coral
      1) Both investigators found Nature Monuments (Antipathes japonica and Antipathes lata), second grade endangered species (Dendronephthya suensoni, Euplexaura crassa, etc) and some types of soft coral reefs that are specified in the law as species to be protected at nearby Saegotbyeol light beacon and Gichabawi Rocks.
      2) A small and stable soft coral reef, which is 60-70m long, was discovered at areas in the vicinity of Gangjeong Lighthouse (100m west of seawall).
      3) A large coral reef in good condition was found near Gichabawi Rocks (1.5㎞ east of seawall).

      c. Geographical and geological features of Gureombi Rocky shore
      Both investigators concluded that Gureombi Rocky shore did not have Sumgol, Gotjawal (Rocky forest) and other special geographical and geological features to be conserved.

      d. Other types of marine life
      The number of species and the abundance of individuals appearing in the area was subjective to investigator. The two investigators agreed that it was attributable to different investigation conditions

      e. After holding a brief session about the findings of Joint Ecosystem Investigation on March 26th, the findings were also sent to the Ministry of National Defense and other related agencies on April 3rd.
     
    • ○ ‘Environmentally-friendly’ means building eco-friendly facilities and applying up-to-date construction methods to minimize environmental degradation. Building docks that use caisson methods and seawater circulation, creating a seaside park, and establishing photovoltaic lighthouse and double layer slit protector are included. If needed, other methods would be applied during the construction.
     
    Does transplantation of endangered species mean moving endangered species from the habitat to another place? What is the purpose and process?
    • ○ According to the Wildlife Protection Act of Korea, endangered species found in the construction site were moved to another place, with the advice of experts and the approval of the Ministry of Environment.
        · Totally, 322 of Sesarma intermedium species (estuary crab) (Endangered Species, LevelⅡ designated by Korean Ministry of Environment) had been transplanted to Yakcheonsa, Daepo-dong, Seoqwipo City, from June 2010 to October 2011.
        · About 900 Kaloula borealis (Endangered Species, LevelⅡ) were transferred to Jeju Stone Park in Jeju City from June to September 2011.
        · About 5,300 Jeju's Neocardina denticulata (freshwater shrimp) were transplanted to Gangjeong creek from October to December 2010.
    • The transplanting process
    • ○ At present, regular monitoring has been carried out on their status, and these population has adapted to their new environment and been living well. If side-effects of this transplantation were observed in the future, appropriate ecological remedy will be applied.
     
    How have stakeholders’ concerns been incorporated in the design and implementation phases of the project?
    • ○ Over 100 meetings and public hearings have been held with residents, civic groups and media, etc. public hearings and meetings download
     
    What is the impact of the port on the village of Gangjeong and will the Gangjeong villagers need to be relocated to? Are the compensation agreements adequate?
    • ○ The construction site is on farms and coastal bedrock areas, so there is no need to relocate the villagers.
    • ○ If the port construction is completed, there will be the gradual influx of 5,000 people, leading to 230 billion won in economic benefits (according to the analysis of a research institute), a lot of jobs will be created through operating welfare or convenient facilities, hosting marine symposium and sports games, and the convenience of residents will be improved thanks to military medical facilities, etc. in the village.
    • ○ As for the compensation, 3 land appraisal companies were selected and conducted appraisal of Gangjeong village, with deliberation and notarization of the Korea Association of Property Appraisers. In addition, Jeju National University studied fisheries damages in 2007 and 2008, and the Korea Appraisal Board conducted appraisal with participation of residents. Based on the appraisals, compensation for fisheries was made.
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